Development of an automated laser drilling algorithm to compare stone ablation patterns from different laser pulse modes.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

World journal of urology


PURPOSE: To develop a novel automated three-dimensional (3D) laser drilling algorithm to further investigate laser-stone interaction with different laser pulse modes. Comparison of post-ablative lattice architecture combined with mass of stone ablated can provide a more complete understanding of differences between pulse mode.

METHODS: A 3D positioner (securing laser fiber) was programmed to create a 5 × 5 grid of drill holes spaced 1 mm apart on 15:5 cylindrical BegoStones. Beginning 0.5 mm above the stone surface, the laser fiber was activated and advanced 2 mm toward and into the stone for all 25 points. Four trials for each pulse mode [short pulse (SP), long pulse (LP), Moses Contact (MC), Moses Distance (MD)] were completed. Outcome measures were assessment of lattice preservation and mass of ablated stone.

RESULTS: MC exhibited the greatest lattice preservation and least stone mass ablated (50.5 ± 2.2 mg). SP (69.4 ± 4.3 mg) and MD (70.0 ± 2.6 mg) had the greatest lattice destruction and stone mass ablated. The differences in stone ablated between MC and MD (p = 0.00003), MC and SP (p = 0.0002), and LP and MD (p = 0.004) were statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS: Consistent quantitative and qualitative differences between pulse modes were observed with a novel automated 3D laser drilling algorithm applied to BegoStone. The laser drilling algorithm developed here can be used to further enhance mechanistic understanding of laser-stone interactions and facilitate selection of appropriate laser pulse modes to balance precision and efficiency across the range of laser lithotripsy techniques.


Online ahead of print.





PubMed ID