Title

Modifiable, Non-Modifiable, and Clinical Factors Associated with Progression of Alzheimer's Disease.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

1-2021

Publication Title

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Abstract

There is an extensive literature relating to factors associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but less is known about factors which may contribute to its progression. This review examined the literature with regard to 15 factors which were suggested by PubMed search to be positively associated with the cognitive and/or neuropathological progression of AD. The factors were grouped as potentially modifiable (vascular risk factors, comorbidities, malnutrition, educational level, inflammation, and oxidative stress), non-modifiable (age at clinical onset, family history of dementia, gender, Apolipoprotein E ɛ4, genetic variants, and altered gene regulation), and clinical (baseline cognitive level, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and extrapyramidal signs). Although conflicting results were found for the majority of factors, a positive association was found in nearly all studies which investigated the relationship of six factors to AD progression: malnutrition, genetic variants, altered gene regulation, baseline cognitive level, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and extrapyramidal signs. Whether these or other factors which have been suggested to be associated with AD progression actually influence the rate of decline of AD patients is unclear. Therapeutic approaches which include addressing of modifiable factors associated with AD progression should be considered.

Volume

80

Issue

1

First Page

1

Last Page

27

DOI

10.3233/JAD-201182

ISSN

1875-8908

PubMed ID

33459643

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