Eyelid and Periocular Cutaneous Carcinomas
Albert and Jakobiec's Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology
Albert, Daniel, Miller, Joan, Azar, Dimitri, Young , Lucy H.
Cutaneous malignancies frequently manifest in the periocular region and are most commonly associated with ultraviolet radiation. Basal cell carcinoma is the most prevalent, comprising 85–95% of all eyelid malignancies. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is second most common, representing 3.4–12.6% of eyelid malignancies. Sebaceous carcinoma and melanoma represent less than 1% of eyelid carcinomas. Rarer presentations of periorbital cutaneous malignancies include Merkel cell carcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, angiosarcoma, various lymphomas, and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. Timely diagnosis and treatment of periorbital cutaneous malignancies is imperative due to their propensity to invade local structures and their potential spread along branches of the trigeminal, facial, or oculomotor nerves, sometimes into the brain. The standard of care for localized eyelid carcinomas is surgical excision with negative margin confirmation. High-risk keratinocyte carcinomas are most commonly treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS), which facilitates margin control with minimal collateral damage to normal tissue. This is especially useful in the aesthetically and functionally sensitive region of the eyelid. Other therapies include standard elliptical excision, cryotherapy, curettage and electrodesiccation (C&E), topical therapies, radiation, chemotherapy (both broad and targeted), and immunotherapy. This chapter reviews the diagnosis and treatment of periocular cutaneous malignancies.
Basal Squamous, Cell carcinoma, Merkel, Sebaceous, Eyelid, Mohs, surgery, Skin cancer, Hedgehog inhibitor, Muir-Torre, Bowen’s, Photodynamic therapy, Gorlin syndrome, Basal cell nevus syndrome, Microcystic adnexal carcinoma
Erickson TR, Heisel CJ, Bichakjian CK, Kahana A. Eyelid and Periocular Cutaneous Carcinomas In: Albert D, Miller J, Azar D, Young LH, editors. Albert and Jakobiec's Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology. [Internet]. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2020 p. 1-38. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90495-5_77-1 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-90495-5_77-1