Autologous Retinal Transplantation for Primary and Refractory Macular Holes and Macular Hole Retinal Detachments: The Global Consortium.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title



PURPOSE: To report the anatomic and functional outcomes of autologous retinal transplantation (ART).

DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective, interventional, consecutive case series.

PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty eyes of 130 patients undergoing ART for the repair of primary and refractory macular holes (MHs), as well as combined MH-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (MH-RRD), between January 2017 and December 2019.

METHODS: All patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy and ART, with surgeon modification of intraoperative variables. A large array of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data was collected. Two masked reviewers graded OCT images. Multivariate statistical analysis and subgroup analysis were performed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Macular hole closure rate, visual acuity (VA), external limiting membrane and ellipsoid zone (EZ) band integrity, and alignment of neurosensory layers (ANL) on OCT.

RESULTS: One hundred thirty ART surgeries were performed by 33 vitreoretinal surgeons worldwide. Patient demographics were: mean age of 63 ± 6.3 years, 58% female, 41% White, 23% Black, 19% Asian, and 17% Latino. Preoperative VA was 1.37 ± 0.12 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR; Snellen equivalent, approximately 20/500), which improved significantly to 1.05 ± 0.09 logMAR (Snellen equivalent, approximately 20/225; P < 0.001) after surgery (mean follow-up, 8.6 ± 0.8 months). Autologous retinal transplantation was performed for primary MH repair in 27% of patients (n = 35), for refractory MH in 58% of patients (n = 76; mean number of previous surgeries, 1.6 ± 0.2), and for MH-RRD in 15% of patients (n = 19). Mean maximum MH diameter was 1470 ± 160 μm, mean minimum diameter was 840 ± 94 μm, and mean axial length was 24.6 ± 3.2 mm. Overall, 89% of MHs closed (78.5% complete; 10% small eccentric defect), with a 95% closure rate in MH-RRD (68.4% complete; 26.3% small eccentric defect). Visual acuity improved by at least 3 lines in 43% of eyes and by at least 5 lines in 29% of eyes. Reconstitution of the EZ (P = 0.02) and ANL (P = 0.01) on OCT were associated with better final VA. Five cases of ART graft dislocation (3.8%), 5 cases of postoperative retinal detachment (3.8%), and 1 case of endophthalmitis (0.77%) occurred.

CONCLUSIONS: In this global experience, patients undergoing ART for large primary and refractory MHs and MH-RRDs achieved good anatomic and functional outcomes, with low complication rates despite complex surgical pathologic features.





First Page


Last Page






PubMed ID