Precision gynecologic oncology: circulating cell free DNA epigenomic analysis, artificial intelligence and the accurate detection of ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecologic cancer due primarily to its asymptomatic nature and late stage at diagnosis. The development of non-invasive markers is an urgent priority. We report the accurate detection of epithelial OC using Artificial Intelligence (AI) and genome-wide epigenetic analysis of circulating cell free tumor DNA (cfTDNA). In a prospective study, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of cytosine (CpG) markers. Both conventional logistic regression and six AI platforms were used for OC detection. Further, we performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) analysis to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of OC. A total of 179,238 CpGs were significantly differentially methylated (FDR p-value < 0.05) genome-wide in OC. High OC diagnostic accuracies were achieved. Conventional logistic regression achieved an area under the ROC curve (AUC) [95% CI] 0.99 [± 0.1] with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Multiple AI platforms each achieved high diagnostic accuracies (AUC = 0.99-1.00). For example, for Deep Learning (DL)/AI AUC = 1.00, sensitivity = 100% and 88% specificity. In terms of OC pathogenesis: GSEA analysis identified 'Adipogenesis' and 'retinoblastoma gene in cancer' as the top perturbed molecular pathway in OC. This finding of epigenomic dysregulation of molecular pathways that have been previously linked to cancer adds biological plausibility to our results.
Bahado-Singh RO, Ibrahim A, Al-Wahab Z, Aydas B, Radhakrishna U, Yilmaz A, et al [Vishweswaraiah S] Precision gynecologic oncology: circulating cell free DNA epigenomic analysis, artificial intelligence and the accurate detection of ovarian cancer. Sci Rep. 2022 Nov 3;12(1):18625. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-23149-1. PMID: 36329159.