Preclinical In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence of an Antitumor Effect of CX-4945, a Casein Kinase II Inhibitor, in Cholangiocarcinoma.
PURPOSE: We investigated the antitumor effect of the casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitor CX-4945 on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA).
METHODS: We assessed the effect of CX-4945 alone and/or in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin on cell viability, colony formation, and apoptosis of CCA cell lines and on in vivo growth of HuCCT1 xenografts.
RESULTS: CX-4945 dose-dependently decreased viability of HuCCT1, EGI-1, and Liv27 and decreased phospho-AKT/total AKT and phospho-PTEN/total PTEN ratios. CX-4945 significantly increased caspase 3/7 activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CX-4945 significantly enhanced the effect of gemcitabine or cisplatin on HuCCT1, EGI-1, and Liv27 cells and inhibited the phosphorylation of DNA repairing enzymes XRCC1 and MDC1. Further, CX-4945 alone significantly inhibited growth of HuCCT1 mouse xenograft tumors. Combining CX-4945 with gemcitabine and cisplatin was more potent than CX-4945 alone or gemcitabine/cisplatin. The effect of CX-4945 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, the PI3K/AKT pathway, and DNA repair was confirmed in the mouse xenografts.
CONCLUSION: CX-4945 has an antiproliferative effect on CCA and enhances the effect of gemcitabine and cisplatin through its inhibitory effect on the PI3K/AKT pathway and DNA repair.
Zakharia K, Miyabe K, Wang Y, Wu D, Moser CD, Borad MJ, Roberts LR. Preclinical In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence of an Antitumor Effect of CX-4945, a Casein Kinase II Inhibitor, in Cholangiocarcinoma. Transl Oncol. 2019 Jan;12(1):143-153. doi: 10.1016/j.tranon.2018.09.005. Epub 2018 Oct 11. PMID: 30316146; PMCID: PMC6187100.