Race, Ethnicity, Neighborhood Characteristics, and In-Hospital Coronavirus Disease-2019 Mortality.
BACKGROUND: Despite many studies reporting disparities in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) incidence and outcomes in Black and Hispanic/Latino populations, mechanisms are not fully understood to inform mitigation strategies.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to test whether neighborhood factors beyond individual patient-level factors are associated with in-hospital mortality from COVID-19. We hypothesized that the Area Deprivation Index (ADI), a neighborhood census-block-level composite measure, was associated with COVID-19 mortality independently of race, ethnicity, and other patient factors.
RESEARCH DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study examining COVID-19 in-hospital mortality.
SUBJECTS: Inclusion required hospitalization with positive SARS-CoV-2 test or COVID-19 diagnosis at three large Midwestern academic centers.
MEASURES: The primary study outcome was COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. Patient-level predictors included age, sex, race, insurance, body mass index, comorbidities, and ventilation. Neighborhoods were examined through the national ADI neighborhood deprivation rank comparing in-hospital mortality across ADI quintiles. Analyses used multivariable logistic regression with fixed site effects.
RESULTS: Among 5999 COVID-19 patients median age was 61 (interquartile range: 44-73), 48% were male, 30% Black, and 10.8% died. Among patients who died, 32% lived in the most disadvantaged quintile while 11% lived in the least disadvantaged quintile; 52% of Black, 24% of Hispanic/Latino, and 8.5% of White patients lived in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods.Living in the most disadvantaged neighborhood quintile predicted higher mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 1.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.67) independent of race. Age, male sex, Medicare coverage, and ventilation also predicted mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood disadvantage independently predicted in-hospital COVID-19 mortality. Findings support calls to consider neighborhood measures for vaccine distribution and policies to mitigate disparities.
Hu J, Bartels CM, Rovin RA, Lamb LE, Kind AJH, Nerenz DR. Race, Ethnicity, Neighborhood Characteristics, and In-Hospital Coronavirus Disease-2019 Mortality. Med Care. 2021 Oct 1;59(10):888-892. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001624. PMID: 34334737; PMCID: PMC8446301.