A Novel Planning and Delivery Technology: Dose, Dose Rate and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Optimization Based on Spot-Scanning Proton Arc Therapy FLASH (SPLASHLET)

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date


Publication Title

International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics


Purpose/Objective(s): To achieve a high conformal dose with Linear Energy Transfer (LET) optimized FLASH proton therapy, we introduced a new planning and delivery technique concept, the voxel-wised optimization of LET distribution and dose rate based on scanning arc therapy (SPLASHLET) Materials/Methods: The algorithm optimizes (1) the clinical dose-volume constraint based on dose distribution and (2) the clinical LET-volume constraint based on LET distribution using Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) with Limited-memory BFGS solver by minimizing the monitor unit (MU) constraint on spot weight and (3) the effective dose-average dose rate by minimizing the accelerator’s beam current sequentially. Such optimization framework enables the high dose conformal dynamic arc therapy with the capability of LET painting with voxel-based FLASH dose rate in an open-source proton planning platform (MatRad, Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center-DKFZ). It aiming to minimize the overall cost function value combined with plan quality and voxel-based LET and dose rate constraints. Three representative cases (brain, liver and prostate cancer) were used for testing purposes. Dose-volume histogram (DVH), LET volume histogram (LVH) dose rate volume histogram (DRVH) and dose rate map were assessed compared to the original SPArc plan (SPArcoriginal). Results: SPLASHLET plan could offer comparable plan quality compared to SPArcoriginal plan. The DRVH results indicated that SPArcoriginal could not achieve FLASH using the clinic beam current configuration, while SPLASHLET could significantly not only improve V40Gy/s in target and region of interest (ROI) but also improve the mean LET in the target and reduce the high LET in organ at risk (OAR) in comparison with SPArcoriginal (Table 1). Conclusion: SPLASHLET offers the first LET painting with voxel-based ultra-dose-rate and high-dose conformity treatment using proton beam therapy. Such technique has the potential to take full vantage of LET painting, FLASH and SPArc.




2 Suppl.

First Page



American Society for Radiation Oncology 65th Annual Meeting ASTRO 2023, October 1-4, 2023, San Diego, CA

American Association of Physicists in Medicine 65th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, July 23-27, 2023, Houston, TX



e85.pdf (545 kB)