Daidzein and genistein have differential effects in decreasing whole body bone mineral density but had no effect on hip and spine density in premenopausal women: A 2-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.)
Soy isoflavones are potentially beneficial phytoestrogens, but their tissue-selective effects in women are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that soy isoflavones affect bone mineral density (BMD), which may be influenced by individual differences in isoflavone metabolism and serum calcium levels. Ninety-nine healthy premenopausal women were randomized to isoflavones (136.6 mg aglycone equivalence) and 98 to placebo for 5 days per week for up to 2 years. BMD, serum calcium, and urinary excretion of daidzein and genistein were measured before and during treatment. In 129 adherent subjects, we found that isoflavone exposure, determined by urinary excretion levels, but not by dose assignment, interacted with serum calcium in affecting whole body BMD, but not hip and spine BMD. The regression coefficient was -0.042 for genistein excretion (GE) and 0.091 for the interaction between GE and serum calcium (all P < .05). Daidzein excretion had similar but marginal effect. Genistein significantly decreased whole body BMD only at low normal serum calcium levels but increased whole body BMD at higher serum calcium levels. Comparing maximum to minimum GE, mean changes in whole body BMD were +0.033 and -0.113 g/cm
Nayeem F, Chen NW, Nagamani M, Anderson KE, Lu LW. Daidzein and genistein have differential effects in decreasing whole body bone mineral density but had no effect on hip and spine density in premenopausal women: A 2-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr Res. 2019 Aug;68:70-81. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2019.06.007. Epub 2019 Jul 3. PMID: 31421395; PMCID: PMC6823144.