Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Is Associated with Elevated Bile Acids in Parkinson's Disease.

Peipei Li
Bryan A Killinger
Elizabeth Ensink
Ian Beddows
Ali Yilmaz, Beaumont Health
Noah Lubben
Jared Lamp
Meghan Schilthuis
Irving E Vega
Randy Woltjer
J Andrew Pospisilik
Patrik Brundin
Lena Brundin
Stewart F. Graham, Beaumont Health
Viviane Labrie


The gut microbiome can impact brain health and is altered in Parkinson's disease (PD). The vermiform appendix is a lymphoid tissue in the cecum implicated in the storage and regulation of the gut microbiota. We sought to determine whether the appendix microbiome is altered in PD and to analyze the biological consequences of the microbial alterations. We investigated the changes in the functional microbiota in the appendix of PD patients relative to controls (