Impact of the bladder detrusor muscular ring on lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia: A quantitative MRI analysis.

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The Prostate


BACKGROUND: The etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) remains uncertain.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to quantitatively analyze anatomic characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess novel independent factors for symptoms.

METHODS: This retrospective single-institution study evaluated treatment-naïve men who underwent prostate MRI within 3 months of international prostate symptom score (IPSS) scoring from June 2021 to February 2022. Factors measured on MRI included: size of the detrusor muscular ring (DMR) surrounding the bladder outlet, central gland (CG) mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), levator hiatus (LH) volume, intrapelvic volume, intravesicular prostate protrusion (IPP) volume, CG volume, peripheral zone (PZ) volume, prostate urethra angle (PUA), and PZ background ordinal score. Multivariable logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to analyze factors for moderate/severe (IPSS ≥ 8) and severe LUTS/BPH (IPSS ≥ 20).

RESULTS: A total of 303 men (mean age: 66.1 [SD: 8.1]) were included: 154 demonstrated moderate or severe symptoms with 28 severe and 149 with asymptomatic/mild symptoms. Increasing age [p = 0.02; odds ratio (OR): 1.05 (1.01-1.08)], PUA [p = 0.02; OR: 1.05 (1.01-1.09)], LH volume [p = 0.04; OR: 1.02 (1.00-1.05)], and DMR size measured as diameter [p < 0.001; OR: 5.0 (3.01-8.38)] or area [p < 0.001; OR: 1.92 (1.47-2.49)] were significantly independently associated with moderate/severe symptoms, with BMI [p = 0.02; OR: 0.93 (0.88-0.99)] inversely related. For every one cm increase in DMR diameter, patients had approximately five times the odds for moderate/severe symptoms. Increasing DMR size [diameter p < 0.001; OR: 2.74 (1.76-4.27) or area p < 0.001; OR: 1.37 (1.18-1.58)] was independently associated with severe symptoms. Optimal criterion cutoff of DMR diameter for moderate/severe symptoms was 1.2 cm [sensitivity: 77.3; specificity: 71.8; AUC: 0.80 (0.75-0.84)]. Inter-reader reliability was excellent for DMR diameter [ICC = 0.92 (0.90-0.94)].

CONCLUSION: Expansion of the DMR surrounding the bladder outlet is a novel anatomic factor independently associated with moderate and severe LUTS/BPH, taking into account prostate volumes, including quantified IPP volume, which were unrelated. Detrusor ring diameter, easily and reliably measured on routine prostate MRI, may relate to detrusor dysfunction from chronic stretching of this histologically distinct smooth muscle around the bladder neck.





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