Three-Fraction TRIUMPH-T Brachytherapy for Delivery of APBI Offers Effective Disease Control With Minimal Late Toxicity

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date


Publication Title

International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics



Shorter courses of breast radiotherapy are offered as an alternative to 4-6 weeks of whole breast irradiation after lumpectomy, including brachytherapy. A prospective phase II multi-institution clinical trial to study 3-fraction accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) delivered by brachytherapy was conducted.


The trial treated selected breast cancers after breast-conserving surgery with brachytherapy applicators that delivered 22.5 Gy in 3 fractions of 7.5 Gy. The planning treatment volume was 1 to 2 cm beyond the surgical cavity. Eligible women were age ≥ 45 years with unicentric invasive or in situ tumors ≤ 3 cm excised with negative margins and with positive estrogen or progesterone receptors and no metastases to axillary nodes. Strict dosimetric parameters were required to be met and follow up information was collected from the participating sites.


A total of 175 patients who were enrolled were followed for a median of 3.63 years. Three-fraction brachytherapy was associated with low chronic toxicity. There was excellent or good cosmesis in 95% of patients. There were no grade 4 toxicities. Grade 3 fibrosis at the treatment site was present in 1.7% and 32% percent had grades 1 or 2 fibrosis at the treatment site. There was 1 rib fracture. Other late toxicities included 7.4% grade 1 hyperpigmentation, 2% grade 1 telangiectasias, 1.7% symptomatic seromas, 1.7% abscessed cavities, and 1.1% symptomatic fat necrosis. There were 2 (1.1%) ipsilateral local recurrences, 2 (1.1%) nodal recurrences and no distant recurrences. Other incidents included one contralateral breast cancer and 2 second malignancies (lung).


Ultra-short breast brachytherapy is feasible and with acceptable late toxicity and could be an alternative to standard 5-day, 10 fraction APBI in eligible patients. Patients from this prospective trial will continue to be followed to evaluate long term outcomes.




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