The interplay between metabolic remodeling and immune regulation in glioblastoma.
The fields of tumor metabolism and immune oncology have both independently received considerable attention over the last several years. The majority of research in tumor metabolism has largely focused on the Warburg effect and its resulting biologic consequences, including energy and macromolecule production. However, recent investigations have identified elegant, multifaceted strategies by which alterations in tumor metabolism can also contribute to a potent tolerogenic immune environment. One of the most notable is increased tryptophan metabolism through activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). However, this pathway represents one of numerous metabolic pathways that may modulate the immune system. For example, metabolites associated with aerobic glycolysis, adenosine, arginine, and prostaglandin metabolism have all been implicated in cancer-mediated immune tolerance and represent attractive therapeutic targets. In this review, we will provide an overview of the emerging interface between these 2 timely areas of cancer research and provide an overview of strategies currently being tested to target these next-generation metabolic immune checkpoints.
Kesarwani P, Kant S, Prabhu A, Chinnaiyan P. The interplay between metabolic remodeling and immune regulation in glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2017 Oct 1;19(10):1308-1315. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/nox079. PMID: 28541512; PMCID: PMC5596164.