Metabolic remodeling contributes towards an immune-suppressive phenotype in glioblastoma.
Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive tumors. Numerous studies in the field of immunotherapy have focused their efforts on identifying various pathways linked with tumor-induced immunosuppression. Recent research has demonstrated that metabolic reprogramming in a tumor can contribute towards immune tolerance. To begin to understand the interface between metabolic remodeling and the immune-suppressive state in GBM, we performed a focused, integrative analysis coupling metabolomics with gene-expression profiling in patient-derived GBM (n = 80) and compared them to low-grade astrocytoma (LGA; n = 28). Metabolic intermediates of tryptophan, arginine, prostaglandin, and adenosine emerged as immuno-metabolic nodes in GBM specific to the mesenchymal and classical molecular subtypes of GBM. Integrative analyses emphasized the importance of downstream metabolism of several of these metabolic pathways in GBM. Using CIBERSORT to analyze immune components from the transcriptional profiles of individual tumors, we demonstrated that tryptophan and adenosine metabolism resulted in an accumulation of Tregs and M2 macrophages, respectively, and was recapitulated in mouse models. Furthermore, we extended these findings to preclinical models to determine their potential utility in defining the biologic and/or immunologic consequences of the identified metabolic programs. Collectively, through integrative analysis, we uncovered multifaceted ways by which metabolic reprogramming may contribute towards immune tolerance in GBM, providing the framework for further investigations designed to determine the specific immunologic consequence of these metabolic programs and their therapeutic potential.
Kesarwani P, Prabhu A, Kant S, Chinnaiyan P. Metabolic remodeling contributes towards an immune-suppressive phenotype in glioblastoma. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019 Jul;68(7):1107-1120. doi: 10.1007/s00262-019-02347-3. Epub 2019 May 22. PMID: 31119318; PMCID: PMC6586493.