Improve dosimetric outcome in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer treatment using spot-scanning proton arc (SPArc) therapy

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Radiation Oncology


© 2018 The Author(s). Background: To evaluate spot-scanning proton arc therapy (SPArc) and multi-field robust optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (RO-IMPT) in treating stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods: Two groups of stage IIIA or IIIB NSCLC patients (group 1: eight patients with tumor motion less than 5mm; group 2: six patients with tumor motion equal to or more than 5mm) were re-planned with SPArc and RO-IMPT. Both plans were generated using robust optimization to achieve an optimal coverage with 99% of internal target volume (ITV) receiving 66Gy (RBE) in 33 fractions. The dosimetric results and plan robustness were compared for both groups. The interplay effect was evaluated based on the ITV coverage by single-fraction 4D dynamic dose. Total delivery time was simulated based on a full gantry rotation with energy-layer-switching-time (ELST) from 0.2 to 4s. Statistical analysis was also evaluated via Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Both SPArc and RO-IMPT plans achieved similar robust target volume coverage for all patients, while SPArc significantly reduced the doses to critical structures as well as the interplay effect. Specifically, compared to RO-IMPT, SPArc reduced the average integral dose by 7.4% (p=0.001), V20, and mean lung dose by an average of 3.2% (p=0.001) and 1.6Gy (RBE) (p=0.001), the max dose to cord by 4.6Gy (RBE) (p=0.04), and the mean dose to heart and esophagus by 0.7Gy (RBE) (p=0.01) and 1.7Gy (RBE) (p=0.003) respectively. The average total estimated delivery time was 160.1s, 213.8s, 303.4s, 840.8s based on ELST of 0.2s, 0.5s, 1s, and 4s for SPArc plans, compared with the respective values of 182.0s (p=0.001), 207.9s (p=0.22), 250.9s (p=0.001), 509.4s (p=0.001) for RO-IMPT plans. Hence, SPArc plans could be clinically feasible when using a shorter ELST. Conclusions: This study has indicated that SPArc could further improve the dosimetric results in patients with locally advanced stage NSCLC and potentially be implemented into routine clinical practice.







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