Prostatic Urethral Length on MRI Potentially Predicts Late Genitourinary Toxicity After Prostate Cancer Radiation.

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Academic radiology


RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to evaluate pretreatment prostate quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements and clinical characteristics in predicting genitourinary (GU) toxicity after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-institution retrospective cohort study, we evaluated patients with prostate adenocarcinoma who underwent MRI within 6 months before completing definitive RT and follow-up information in our GU toxicity database from June 2016 to February 2023. MRI measurements included quantitative urethra, prostate, and bladder measurements. GU toxicity was physician-scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.0) with acute toxicity defined as ≤180 days and late defined as >180 days. Multivariable logistic regression model was constructed for grade ≥2 acute toxicity and Cox proportional hazards regression for late toxicity, adjusted for clinical factors and RT method.

RESULTS: A total of 361 men (median age 68 years, interquartile range [IQR] 62-73) were included; 14.4% (50/347) men experienced grade ≥2 acute toxicity. Brachytherapy (odds ratio [OR]: 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-5.8), P < 0.01) was associated with increased odds of acute GU toxicity, and longer MUL (OR: 0.41 [95%CI: 0.18-0.92], P = 0.03) with decreased odds. Median follow-up for late toxicity was 15.0 months (IQR: 9.0-28.0) with approximately 88.7% and 72.0% patients free of toxicity at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Only longer prostatic urethral length (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.2-2.1, P < 0.01) was associated with increased risk of late GU toxicity, notably urinary frequency/urgency symptoms (HR: 1.7 [95%CI: 1.3-2.3], P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Longer prostatic urethral length measured on prostate MRI is independently associated with higher risk of developing late grade ≥2 GU toxicity after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. This pretreatment metric may be potentially valuable in risk-stratification models for quality of life following prostate RT.





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