Modeling the Risk of Hearing Loss From Radiation Therapy in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A PENTEC Comprehensive Review.

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International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics


PURPOSE: The Pediatric Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (PENTEC) hearing loss (HL) task force reviewed investigations on cochlear radiation dose-response relationships and risk factors for developing HL. Evidence-based dose-response data are quantified to guide treatment planning.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: A systematic review of the literature was performed to correlate HL with cochlear dosimetry. HL was considered present if a threshold exceeded 20 dB at any frequency. Radiation dose, ototoxic chemotherapy exposure, hearing profile including frequency spectra, interval to HL, and age at radiation therapy (RT) were analyzed.

RESULTS: Literature was systematically reviewed from 1970 to 2021. This resulted in 739 abstracts; 19 met inclusion for meta-analysis, and 4 included data amenable to statistical modeling. These 4 studies included 457 cochleas at risk in patients treated with RT without chemotherapy, and 398 cochlea treated with chemotherapy. The incidence and severity of cochlear HL from RT exposure alone is related to dose and age. Risk of HL was3 years of age. High-frequency HL was most common, with average onset occurring 3.6 years (range, 0.4-13.2 years) after RT. Exposure to platinum-based chemotherapies added to the rates of HL at a given cochlear dose level, with 300 mg/m

CONCLUSIONS: In children treated with RT alone, risk of HL was low for cochlear doseprevalent, but all frequencies were affected. Children younger than 5 years were at highest risk of developing HL, although independent effects of dose and age were not fully elucidated. Future reports with more granular data are needed to better delineate time to onset of HL and the effects of chemoradiotherapy.





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