Post Cryptococcal Moyamoya Syndrome in Adult Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient With Anterior and Posterior Circulation Involvement: Case Report.
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare idiopathic progressive vaso-occlusive disease characterized by irreversible vascular occlusion and collateral development of distal internal carotid arteries. Initially perceived as an exclusive entity to the East Asian population, the disease is now being reported globally, affecting individuals of diverse ethnicities. We present a case of a 55-year-old African American male patient with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and a prior history of cryptococcal meningitis presenting to the emergency department with recurrent episodic headaches, which was refractory to routine medical therapy. Neuroimaging with computed tomography angiogram of the head and neck and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain led to the subsequent diagnosis of moyamoya syndrome (MMS). To our knowledge, MMS is uncommon in adult HIV/AIDS patients. It is crucial that clinicians are aware of the disease progression. For effective recognition and prevention of the condition, it is of utmost importance that clinicians possess a comprehensive understanding of the disease and its clinical manifestations.
Arficho KT, Gumma C, Chakko MN. Post cryptococcal moyamoya syndrome in adult human immunodeficiency virus patient with anterior and posterior circulation involvement: case report. Cureus. 2023 Aug 24;15(8):e44052. doi: 10.7759/cureus.44052. PMID: 37746378.