Three-Fraction Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) Delivered With Interstitial Brachytherapy Is Safe: First Results From the Tri-fraction Radiation Therapy Used to Minimize Patient Hospital Trips (TRIUMPH-T) Trial.

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Pract Radiat Oncol


PURPOSE: Shorter courses of breast radiotherapy are offered as an alternative to 4 weeks of whole-breast irradiation after lumpectomy, including brachytherapy. A prospective phase 2multi-institution clinical trial to study 3-fraction accelerated partial breast irradiation delivered by brachytherapy was conducted.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: The trial treated selected breast cancers after breast-conserving surgery with brachytherapy applicators that delivered 22.5 Gy in 3 fractions of 7.5 Gy. The planning treatment volume was 1 to 2 cm beyond the surgical cavity. Eligible women were age ≥45 years with unicentric invasive or in situ tumors ≤3 cm excised with negative margins and with positive estrogen or progesterone receptors and no metastases to axillary nodes. Strict dosimetric parameters were required to be met and follow up information was collected from the participating sites.

RESULTS: Two hundred patients were prospectively enrolled; however, a total of 185 patients who were enrolled were followed for a median of 3.63 years. Three-fraction brachytherapy was associated with low chronic toxicity. There was excellent or good cosmesis in 94% of patients. There were no grade 4 toxicities. Grade 3 fibrosis at the treatment site was present in 1.7% and 32% percent had grades 1 or 2 fibrosis at the treatment site. There was 1 rib fracture. Other late toxicities included 7.4% grade 1 hyperpigmentation, 2% grade 1 telangiectasias, 1.7% symptomatic seromas, 1.7% abscessed cavities, and 1.1% symptomatic fat necrosis. There were 2 (1.1%) ipsilateral local recurrences, 2 (1.1%) nodal recurrences and no distant recurrences. Other incidents included one contralateral breast cancer and 2 second malignancies (lung).

CONCLUSIONS: Ultra-short breast brachytherapy is feasible and has excellent toxicity and could be an alternative to standard 5-day, 10 fraction accelerated partial breast irradiation in eligible patients. Patients from this prospective trial will continue to be followed to evaluate long-term outcomes.





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