Evaluation of DIR schemes on tumor/organ with progressive shrinkage: Accuracy of tumor/organ internal tissue tracking during the radiation treatment.

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Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology


PURPOSE: Accuracy of intratumoral treatment dose accumulation and response assessment highly depends on the accuracy of a DIR method. However, achievable accuracy of the existing DIR methods for tumor/organ with large and progressive shrinkage during the radiotherapy course have not been explored. This study aimed to use a bio-tissue phantom to quantify the achievable accuracy of different DIR schemes.

MATERIALS /METHODS: A fresh porcine liver was used for phantom material. Sixty gold markers were implanted on the surface and inside of the liver. To simulate the progressive radiation-induced tumor/organ shrinkage, the phantom was heated using a microwave oven incrementally from 30 s to 200 s in 8 phases. For each phase, the phantom was scanned by CT. Two extra image sets were generated from the original images: 1) the image set with overriding the high-density gold markers (feature image); 2) the image set with overriding the entire phantom to the mean soft tissue intensity (featureless image). Ten DIR schemes were evaluated to mimic clinical treatment situations of tumor/critical organ with respect to their surface and internal condition of image features, availability of intermediate feedback images and DIR methods. The internal marker's positions were utilized to evaluate DIR accuracy quantified by target registration error (TRE).

RESULTS: Volume reduction was about 20 % ∼ 40 % of the initial volume after 90 s ∼ 200 s of the heating. Without image features on the surface and inside of the phantom, the hybrid-DIR (image-based DIR followed by biomechanical model-based refinement) with the surface constraint achieved the registration TRE from 2.6 ± 1.2 mm to 5.3 ± 2.6 mm proportional to the %volume shrinkage. Meanwhile, the hybrid-DIR with the surface-marker constraint achieved the TRE from 2.4 ± 1.2 mm to 2.6 ± 1.0 mm. If both the surface and internal image features would be viable on the feedback images, the achievable accuracy could be minimal with the TRE from 1.6 ± 0.9 mm to 1.9 ± 1.2 mm.

CONCLUSIONS: Standard DIR methods cannot guarantee intratumoral tissue registration accuracy for tumor/organ with large progressive shrinkage. Achievable accuracy with using the hybrid DIR method is highly dependent on the surface registration accuracy. If the surface registration mean TRE can be controlled within 2 mm, the mean TRE of internal tissue can be controlled within 3 mm.



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