Developing an accurate model of spot-scanning treatment delivery time and sequence for a compact superconducting synchrocyclotron proton therapy system.

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Radiation Oncology


BACKGROUND: A new compact superconducting synchrocyclotron single-room proton solution delivers pulsed proton beams to each spot through several irradiation bursts calculated by an iterative layer delivery algorithm. Such a mechanism results in a new beam parameter, burst switching time (BST) in the total beam delivery time (BDT) which has never been studied before. In this study, we propose an experimental approach to build an accurate BDT and sequence prediction model for this new proton solution.

METHODS: Test fields and clinical treatment plans were used to investigate each beam delivery parameter that impacted BDT. The machine delivery log files were retrospectively analyzed to quantitatively model energy layer switching time (ELST), spot switching time (SSWT), spot spill time (SSPT), and BST. A total of 102 clinical IMPT treatment fields' log files were processed to validate the accuracy of the BDT prediction model in comparison with the result from the current commercial system. Interplay effect is also investigated as a clinical application by comparing this new delivery system model with a conventional cyclotron accelerator model.

RESULTS: The study finds that BST depends on the amount of data to be transmitted between two sequential radiation bursts, including a machine irradiation log file of the previous burst and a command file to instruct the proton system to deliver the next burst. The 102 clinical treatment fields showed that the accuracy of each component of the BDT matches well between machine log files and BDT prediction model. More specifically, the difference of ELST, SSWT, SSPT, and BST were (- 3.1 ± 5.7)%, (5.9 ± 3.9)%, (2.6 ± 8.7)%, and (- 2.3 ± 5.3)%, respectively. The average total BDT was about (2.1 ± 3.0)% difference compared to the treatment log files, which was significantly improved from the current commercial proton system prediction (58 ± 15)%. Compared to the conventional cyclotron system, the burst technique from synchrocyclotron effectively reduced the interplay effect in mobile tumor treatment.

CONCLUSION: An accurate BDT and sequence prediction model was established for this new clinical compact superconducting synchrocyclotron single-room proton solution. Its application could help users of similar facilities better assess the interplay effect and estimate daily patient treatment throughput.





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