Interplay Between Duration of Androgen Deprivation Therapy and External Beam Radiotherapy With or Without a Brachytherapy Boost for Optimal Treatment of High-risk Prostate Cancer: A Patient-Level Data Analysis of 3 Cohorts.
IMPORTANCE: Radiotherapy combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a standard of care for high-risk prostate cancer. However, the interplay between radiotherapy dose and the required minimum duration of ADT is uncertain.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the specific ADT duration threshold that provides a distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) benefit in patients with high-risk prostate cancer receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or EBRT with a brachytherapy boost (EBRT+BT).
DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a cohort study of 3 cohorts assembled from a multicenter retrospective study (2000-2013); a post hoc analysis of the Randomized Androgen Deprivation and Radiotherapy 03/04 (RADAR; 2003-2007) randomized clinical trial (RCT); and a cross-trial comparison of the RADAR vs the Deprivación Androgénica y Radio Terapía (Androgen Deprivation and Radiation Therapy; DART) 01/05 RCT (2005-2010). In all, the study analyzed 1827 patients treated with EBRT and 1108 patients treated with EBRT+BT from the retrospective cohort; 181 treated with EBRT and 203 with EBRT+BT from RADAR; and 91 patients treated with EBRT from DART. The study was conducted from October 15, 2020, to July 1, 2021, and the data analyses, from January 5 to June 15, 2021.
EXPOSURES: High-dose EBRT or EBRT+BT for an ADT duration determined by patient-physician choice (retrospective) or by randomization (RCTs).
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was DMFS; secondary outcome was overall survival (OS). Natural cubic spline analysis identified minimum thresholds (months).
RESULTS: This cohort study of 3 studies totaling 3410 men (mean age [SD], 68 [62-74] years; race and ethnicity not collected) with high-risk prostate cancer found a significant interaction between the treatment type (EBRT vs EBRT+BT) and ADT duration (binned to
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These cohort study findings suggest that the optimal minimum ADT duration for treatment with high-dose EBRT alone is more than 18 months; and for EBRT+BT, it is 18 months or possibly less. Additional studies are needed to determine more precise minimum durations.
Kishan AU, Steigler A, Denham JW, Zapatero A, Guerrero A, Joseph D, Maldonado X, Wong JK, Stish BJ, Dess RT, Pilar A, Reddy C, Wedde TB, Lilleby WA, Fiano R, Merrick GS, Stock RG, Demanes DJ, Moran BJ, Tran PT, Martin S, Martinez-Monge R, Krauss DJ, Abu-Isa EI, Pisansky TM, Choo CR, Song DY, Greco S, Deville C, McNutt T, DeWeese TL, Ross AE, Ciezki JP, Tilki D, Karnes RJ, Tosoian JJ, Nickols NG, Bhat P, Shabsovich D, Juarez JE, Jiang T, Ma TM, Xiang M, Philipson R, Chang A, Kupelian PA, Rettig MB, Feng FY, Berlin A, Tward JD, Davis BJ, Reiter RE, Steinberg ML, Elashoff D, Boutros PC, Horwitz EM, Tendulkar RD, Spratt DE, Romero T. Interplay Between Duration of Androgen Deprivation Therapy and External Beam Radiotherapy With or Without a Brachytherapy Boost for Optimal Treatment of High-risk Prostate Cancer: A Patient-Level Data Analysis of 3 Cohorts. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Mar 1;8(3):e216871. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.6871. Epub 2022 Mar 17. PMID: 35050303; PMCID: PMC8778608.