Two-parameter localization and related phase transition for a Schrödinger operator in balls and spherical shells
Journal of Mathematical Physics
ABSTRACT Here, we investigate the two-parameter high-frequency localization for the eigenfunctions of a Schrödinger operator with a singular inverse square potential in high-dimensional balls and spherical shells as the azimuthal quantum number l and the principal quantum number k tend to infinity simultaneously, while keeping their ratio as a constant, generalizing the classical one-parameter localization for Laplacian eigenfunctions [B.-T. Nguyen and D. S. Grebenkov, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 73, 780–803 (2013)]. We prove that the eigenfunctions in balls are localized around an intermediate sphere whose radius is increasing with respect to the l–k ratio. The eigenfunctions decay exponentially inside the localized sphere and decay polynomially outside. Furthermore, we discover a novel phase transition for the eigenfunctions in spherical shells as the l–k ratio crosses a critical value. In the supercritical case, the eigenfunctions are localized around a sphere between the inner and outer boundaries of the spherical shell. In the critical case, the eigenfunctions are localized around the inner boundary. In the subcritical case, no localization could be observed, giving rise to localization breaking.
Jia C, Zhang Z, Zhao L. Two-parameter localization for eigenfunctions of a Schrödinger operator in balls and spherical shells. J Mathematical Physics 2021 Sep 1;62(9):091505.