Impact of initial treatment selection on clinical outcomes after biochemical failure in radiorecurrent high-risk prostate cancer.

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Journal of Clinical Oncology


Background: Treatment of high risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus brachytherapy (BT) boost (EBRT+BT) has been prospectively associated with lower rates of BCR, albeit potentially with increased toxicity, and retrospectively linked to decreased distant metastasis (DM) and PCa-specific mortality (PCSM) compared to EBRT alone. However, it is unclear whether patients who develop BCR following either approach have similar downstream oncologic outcomes. Methods: We identified 706 out of 3820 men with HRPCa treated at 13 institutions from 1998-2015 with EBRT (n=468/2134) or EBRT+BT (n=238/1686) who developed BCR. We compared rates of DM, PCSM, and all-cause mortality (ACM) after BCR between treatment groups using Fine-Gray competing risk regression. Models were adjusted for age, Gleason grade group, initial PSA (iPSA), clinical T stage, time-dependent use of systemic salvage, and interval to BCR using inverse probability of treatment weighting. Results: Median follow-up was 9.9 years from RT and 4.8 years from BCR. Groups were similar in age, iPSA, presence of ≥2 HR features, and median interval to BCR (3.3 years). Most men received neoadjuvant/concurrent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), 92.5% and 91.0% for EBRT and EBRT+BT, respectively, though for a longer duration with EBRT (median 14.7 vs. 9.0 months, p=0.0012). Local and systemic salvage rates were 2.3% and 36.3% after EBRT, and 2.6% and 43.6% after EBRT+BT, respectively. Initial EBRT+BT was associated with significantly lower rates of DM after BCR (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.36-0.64, pConclusions: In this large retrospective series of radiorecurrent HRPCa, initial treatment with EBRT+BT was associated with significantly lower rates of DM after BCR compared with EBRT, despite shorter ADT use and a similar median interval to BCR. Local salvage was widely underutilized in both groups. In the absence of salvage for local failure after EBRT, upfront treatment intensification with BT may reduce DM, though not PCSM or ACM, even after development of BCR.




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