18F-FDG PET Predicts Hematologic Toxicity in Patients with Locally Advanced Anal Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation.
Advances in Radiation Oncology
Purpose: Hematologic toxicity (HT) during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for anal cancer can lead to treatment breaks that compromise efficacy. We hypothesized that CRT-induced HT correlates with changes in active bone marrow (ABM) characterized by pre-/post-CRT positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography.
Methods and materials: Data from 36 patients with anal cancer who were treated with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography scans 2 weeks before and 6 to 16 weeks after CRT were analyzed. Complete blood counts with differential within 2 weeks from, weekly during, and 2 week after treatment were obtained. HT was defined as baseline complete blood count change to nadir and posttreatment recovery. Total bone marrow was segmented into 2 subregions: lumbosacral (LS) pelvis (L5 vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx) and lower pelvis (LP) (ilium, femoral head/neck, and greater and lesser trochanter). PET ABM was characterized as the volume having standard uptake value (SUV) greater than the mean uptake of unirradiated extrapelvic bone marrow. PET variables of pre-/post-CRT and HT predictors were analyzed by linear regression.
Results: Average pelvic ABM was significantly reduced from 52% to 41% in pre- to post-CRT PET scans for all patients (
Conclusions: HT was significantly associated with ΔABM in patients with anal cancer who were treated with CRT. LS-ABM was a robust surrogate for evaluating CRT-induced HT. Our results suggest implementation of ABM dosimetric constraints, V40 Gy ≤ 20-25%, may significantly reduce HT and lead to decreased treatment delays associated with clinical outcomes.
David JM, Yue Y, Blas K, Hendifar A, Kabolizadeh P, Tuli R. 18F-FDG PET Predicts Hematologic Toxicity in Patients with Locally Advanced Anal Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation. Adv Radiat Oncol. 2019 Jul 4;4(4):613-622. doi: 10.1016/j.adro.2019.06.005. PMID: 31681863; PMCID: PMC6817719.