Fore! A 10-year Analysis of Golf-related Facial Fractures.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open
Background: Over 30 million people in the United States play golf, which, while considered a low-impact sport, involves balls and clubs moving >100 miles/h (>160.93 km/h), creating potential for a significant facial trauma. The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of golf-related facial fractures in the United States.
Methods: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, which records injuries from approximately 100 US emergency departments, was queried for golf-related facial fractures from 2009 to 2018. Entries were tabulated for mechanism of injury and fracture location. Age, gender, seasonality of injury, type of fracture, and injury mechanism were analyzed using SPSS. Because of the different nature and management of pediatric fractures, we looked at pediatric patients as a distinct subgroup.
Results: There were 114 reported cases of golf-related craniofacial fractures in patients 2-91 years of age with male predominance (73.7%). This rate extrapolates to an estimated 3,850 ED presentations. Although accounting for about 10% of total players, patients under 18, commonly referred to as "junior golfers," comprised 55.3% of the cohort. Nasal fractures (25.4%), skull fractures (23.7%), unspecified facial fractures (17.5%), and mandible fractures (10.5%) predominated, which most commonly result from clubs (63.2%), balls (23.7%), and falls (11.4%).
Conclusions: Facial fractures resulting from golf clubs and balls may not be as common as in other traditionally identified "high-impact sports," but they affect pediatric patients disproportionately and with a greater morbidity. Parents and children engaging the sport should be aware of the risk of head trauma, especially with any form of off-course participation.
Oska SR, Chaiyasate K, Lu SM. Fore! A 10-year Analysis of Golf-related Facial Fractures. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2020 Oct 22;8(10):e3128. doi: 10.1097/GOX.0000000000003128. PMID: 33173669; PMCID: PMC7647656.