Intraoperative Uses of Near-Infrared Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Pediatric Surgery: A Systematic Review.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery
BACKGROUND: The application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) imaging in surgery is growing. This study aimed to systematically review the literature to summarize the intraoperative uses of NIRS in pediatric surgery.
METHODS: A PRISMA-compliant literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science from inception to February 2020. Title/abstract and then full-text screening were performed. The Oxford centre for Evidence Based Medicine tool (OCEBM) was used to evaluate the level of evidence of included studies.
RESULTS: Reviewers identified 53 articles. Of which, 34 studies (64.2%) were case-series and 11 (20.8%) were case reports. Most of the studies (n = 45, 84.9%) were level 4 on the OCEBM tool. The most common uses of NIRS were to visualize the biliary tree and to identify primary and metastatic malignant tissues. Other applications include assessment of perfusion of tissues including bowel anastomoses, and lymphatic surgery. Several advantages of the introduction of NIRS in pediatric surgery exist including having the potential to reduce operative time and intra/post-operative complications. Moreover, NIRS helps in detecting malignant tissues that can be missed by conventional imaging. However, NIRS has important limitations such as difficulty in identification of the biliary tree in obese patients or inflamed gallbladder, detection of small deeply localized malignant tissues, as well as the high cost.
CONCLUSIONS: NIRS is a promising modality that can be used intraoperatively to augment different pediatric surgical procedures. NIRS has important advantages and limitations compared to conventional surgery, however, more studies are required to evaluate its outcomes and cost-effectiveness.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
Alghoul H, Farajat FA, Alser O, Snyr AR, Harmon CM, Novotny NM. Intraoperative uses of near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy in pediatric surgery: A systematic review. J Pediatr Surg. 2022 Jun;57(6):1137-1144. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2022.01.039. Epub 2022 Feb 6. PMID: 35256157.