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• Neonatal pyogenic liver abscesses are rare • Potential routes of hepatic infection include: portal vein, biliary ducts, hepatic artery during sepsis, or direct spread from infected contiguous structures • Risk factors may include bloodstream infection, abdominal surgery, umbilical vein catheterization, total parenteral nutrition, necrotizing enterocolitis, and/or immune deficiencies • More common in premature infants at present • Variety of etiologic agents for neonatal liver abscess: Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and resistant), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS), streptococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Candida • Umbilical stump and catheter exit site hub often colonized with CONS • CONS colonize nearly all human skin and are often considered contaminants when recovered from blood cultures and may be dismissed as non-pathogens when isolated from tissues and other body fluids • CONS, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, have been found to harbor genes that encode for adhesion factors and exotoxins, among others • Staphylococcal superantigens are exotoxins produced by S. aureus strains which contribute to the pathology of various serious diseases such as toxic shock syndrome, infective endocarditis, and other conditions such as Kawasaki disease and atopic dermatitis; some have been identified in CONS, including S. epidermidis • We describe a premature newborn with hepatic abscess from whom a S. epidermidis strain was isolated that harbored multiple superantigen genes

Publication Date



liver abscess, Staphylococcus epidermidis


Infectious Disease | Pediatrics


ASM Microbe 2022 American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. June 9-13, 2022.

Detection of Enterotoxin Gene Cluster in Staphylococcus epidermidis Recovered from Neonatal Liver Abscess