Acute kidney injury in critically Ill children and young adults with suspected SARS-CoV2 infection.
BACKGROUND: We aimed to study the association of suspected versus confirmed infection with the novel SARS-CoV2 virus with the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill children.
METHODS: Sequential point-prevalence study of children and young adults aged 7 days to 25 years admitted to intensive care units under investigation for SARS-CoV2 infection. AKI was staged in the first 14 days of enrollment using KDIGO creatinine-based staging. SARS-CoV2 positive (CONFIRMED) were compared to SUSPECTED (negative or unknown). Outcome data was censored at 28-days.
RESULTS: In 331 patients of both sexes, 179 (54.1%) were CONFIRMED, 4.2% (14) died. AKI occurred in 124 (37.5%) and severe AKI occurred in 63 (19.0%). Incidence of AKI in CONFIRMED was 74/179 (41.3%) versus 50/152 (32.9%) for SUSPECTED; severe AKI occurred in 35 (19.6%) of CONFIRMED and 28 (18.4%) of SUSPECTED. Mortality was 6.2% (n = 11) in CONFIRMED, but 9.5% (n = 7) in those CONFIRMED with AKI. On multivariable analysis, only Hispanic ethnicity (relative risk 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9) was associated with less AKI development among those CONFIRMED.
CONCLUSIONS: AKI and severe AKI occur commonly in critically ill children with SARS-CoV2 infection, more than double the historical standard. Further investigation is needed during this continuing pandemic to describe and refine the understanding of pediatric AKI epidemiology and outcomes.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01987921.
IMPACT: What is the key message of the article? AKI occurs in children exposed to the novel SARS-CoV2 virus at high prevalence (~40% with some form of AKI and 20% with severe AKI). What does it add to the existing literature? Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly in adult patients with SARS-CoV2 (COVID), very little data describes the epidemiology of AKI in children exposed to the virus. What is the impact? A pediatric vaccine is not available; thus, the pandemic is not over for children. Pediatricians will need to manage significant end-organ ramifications of the novel SARS-CoV2 virus including AKI.
Basu RK, Bjornstad EC, Gist KM, Starr M, Khandhar P, Chanchlani R, Krallman KA, Zappitelli M, Askenazi D, Goldstein SL; SPARC Investigators. Acute kidney injury in critically Ill children and young adults with suspected SARS-CoV2 infection. Pediatr Res. 2021 Jul 30:1–10. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01667-4. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34331019; PMCID: PMC8323541.