A Rare Case of Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncological emergency characterized by biochemical abnormalities such as metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. The clinical outcome is directly related to the biochemical abnormalities. TLS can occur in any malignancy, but it is highly associated with rapidly proliferating tumors. Although the syndrome is commonly associated with hematological malignancies, particularly with leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, it is rarely seen in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. In our case, a 7-year-old girl presented with intermittent fever, non-productive cough, fatigue, and night sweats for four months. On examination, she had an enlarged cervical lymph node of 5 cm in size on the left side accompanied by palpable supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. Past medical history was significant for the relapsing and remitting course of nephrotic syndrome diagnosed two years before presentation. The patient underwent a left-sided cervical node excisional biopsy, which confirmed classical Hodgkin's lymphoma of mixed cellularity type. Her baseline chest x-ray revealed a bulky anterior mediastinal mass. To stage the tumor, a bone marrow biopsy, CT, and positron emission tomography (PET) scan were done. Although the bone marrow biopsy report showed a normal pattern of trilineage hematopoiesis, the CT and PET scan results led to its classification under stage 4. During her stay in the hospital for further work-up and treatment, her condition suddenly deteriorated. There were biochemical derangements on lab reports that confirmed the Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome (STLS). She recovered completely due to immediate stabilization and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. STLS is a life-threatening condition that is rarely seen in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The treating physicians should be vigilant about this possible sequela of Hodgkin's lymphoma and be aware of its different presentations.
Hassan M, Alam D, Altaf N, Kundi AK. A Rare Case of Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Hodgkin Lymphoma. Cureus. 2021 Jun 24;13(6):e15887. doi: 10.7759/cureus.15887. PMID: 34211814; PMCID: PMC8236333.