Clinical Pathological Features of Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma with Concurrent Bone Marrow Involvement
Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are uncommon and less well studied. Most PTCLs present as systemic disease and often involve bone marrow. Bone marrow involvement by PTCLs may damage the normal hematopoiesis and bring more challenge to clinical management of these patients. This study focuses on the clinical pathological features and clinical outcomes in 13 patients with nodal peripheral T cell lymphoma and subsequent bone marrow biopsy positive for the same lymphoma. Eight patients were diagnosed of peripheral T cell lymphoma - not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), 3 angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL), 1 anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), and 1 T cell lymphoma of gamma-delta origin (TCL-gamma/delta). All patients had peripheral blood abnormalities: 11 anemia, 7 thrombocytopenia, 5 neutropenia, and 2 lymphocytosis. Of interest, the CD4/CD8 phenotype of PTCL was shown correlating with abnormal peripheral blood findings: CD4+/CD8- phenotype was more often associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, and CD4-/CD8+ phenotype was associated with lymphocytosis. Chemotherapy remains the choice of first line treatment for these patients with or without stem cell transplantation. 12 patients had treatment and follow up data available for review, 5 were in remission or free of disease during the follow up period; 5 patients were alive or in hospice with persistent disease and 2 died of disease due to multiple complications. The outcome of PTCL treated with the standard chemotherapy has been less favorable compared with B cell lymphomas. Majority of the patients with nodal PTCL have bone marrow involvement at the time of initial diagnosis, which has significant impact on normal hematopoiesis and may be a significant factor in the overall unfavorable prognosis for these patients. Further investigation with better knowledge about this disease will be helpful in the development of more efficient therapy and improve the disease free survival and life quality for these patients.