Immune responses of lung transplant recipients against SARS-CoV-2 and common respiratory coronaviruses: Evidence for pre-existing cross-reactive immunity.
Humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses in lung transplant recipients are unknown. We measured antibodies and T cell responses against the SARS-CoV-2 spike S2 and nucleocapsid antigens and spike antigens from common respiratory coronaviruses (229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1) after vaccination or infection of LTxRs. 148 LTxRs from single center were included in this study: 98 after vaccination and 50 following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antibodies were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The frequency of T cells secreting IL2, IL4, IL10, IL17, TNFα, and IFNγ were enumerated by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Our results have shown the development of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in infected LTxRs (39/50) and vaccinated LTxRs (52/98). Vaccinated LTxRs had higher number of T cells producing TNFα but less cells producing IFNγ than infected LTxRs in response to the nucleocapsid antigen and other coronavirus spike antigens. We didn't find correlation between the development of antibodies and cellular immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein after vaccination. Instead, LTxRs have pre-existing cellular immunity to common respiratory coronaviruses, leading to cross-reactive immunity against SARS-CoV-2 which likely will provide protection against SARS-Cov-2 infection.
Bansal S, Fleming T, Canez J, Maine GN, Bharat A, Walia R, et al Immune responses of lung transplant recipients against SARS-CoV-2 and common respiratory coronaviruses: Evidence for pre-existing cross-reactive immunity. Transpl Immunol. 2023 Oct 20;81:101940. doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2023.101940. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37866672.