Myeloperoxidase immunohistochemical staining can identify glomerular endothelial cell injury in dense deposit disease.
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated residual complement-mediated deposits in repeat kidney biopsies of C3 glomerulopathies (C3G) (dense deposit disease (DDD) and C3 glomerulonephritis) following eculizumab treatment, despite some clinical improvement. With residual complement deposition, it is difficult to determine whether there is a reduced complement-mediated endothelial cell injury. We validated that myeloperoxidase (MPO) immunohistochemical staining identified glomerular endothelial cell injury in crescentic glomerulonephritis and C3G.
CASE (DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT): We report that MPO staining in the glomerular endothelium of the post-treatment kidney biopsy was significantly reduced after 3 years of eculizumab treatment and clinical improvement in a 5-year-old boy with initial DDD and secondary crescent formation.
CONCLUSION: We find that immunostaining for MPO is a useful method to compare glomerular endothelial injury in C3G following eculizumab treatment. This finding also supports the notion that eculizumab, a C5 blocker, may not mainly block C3 deposits in the glomeruli but significantly blocks final activation of the complement cascade, thus reducing glomerular endothelial cell injury.
Blatt NB, Kumar T, Wickman LT, Kanaan HD, Chang A, Zhang PL. Myeloperoxidase immunohistochemical staining can identify glomerular endothelial cell injury in dense deposit disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2020 Dec;36(12):4003-4007. doi: 10.1007/s00467-021-05262-x. Epub 2021 Sep 14. PMID: 34522991.