Clinical Practice Guideline: Opioid Prescribing for Analgesia After Common Otolaryngology Operations.
Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
OBJECTIVE: Opioid use disorder (OUD), which includes the morbidity of dependence and mortality of overdose, has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Overprescription of opioids can lead to chronic use and misuse, and unused narcotics after surgery can lead to their diversion. Research supports that most patients do not take all the prescribed opioids after surgery and that surgeons are the second largest prescribers of opioids in the United States. The introduction of opioids in those with OUD often begins with prescription opioids. Reducing the number of extra opioids available after surgery through smaller prescriptions, safe storage, and disposal should reduce the risk of opioid use disorder in otolaryngology patients and their families.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this specialty-specific guideline is to identify quality improvement opportunities in postoperative pain management of common otolaryngologic surgical procedures. These opportunities are communicated through clear actionable statements with explanation of the support in the literature, evaluation of the quality of the evidence, and recommendations on implementation. Employing these action statements should reduce the variation in care across the specialty and improve postoperative pain control while reducing risk of OUD. The target patients for the guideline are any patients treated for anticipated or reported pain within the first 30 days after undergoing common otolaryngologic procedures. The target audience of the guideline is otolaryngologists who perform surgery and clinicians who manage pain after surgical procedures. Outcomes to be considered include whether the patient has stopped using opioids, has disposed of unused opioids, and was satisfied with the pain management plan.The guideline addresses assessment of the patient for OUD risk factors, counseling on pain expectations, and identifying factors that can affect pain duration and/or severity. It also discusses the use of multimodal analgesia as first-line treatment and the responsible use of opioids. Last, safe disposal of unused opioids is discussed.This guideline is intended to focus on evidence-based quality improvement opportunities judged most important by the guideline development group. It is not a comprehensive guide on pain management in otolaryngologic procedures. The statements in this guideline are not intended to limit or restrict care provided by clinicians based on their experiences and assessments of individual patients.
ACTION STATEMENTS: The guideline development group made
Anne S, Mims JW, Tunkel DE, Rosenfeld RM, Boisoneau DS, Brenner MJ, Cramer JD, Dickerson D, Finestone SA, Folbe AJ, Galaiya DJ, Messner AH, Paisley A, Sedaghat AR, Stenson KM, Sturm AK, Lambie EM, Dhepyasuwan N, Monjur TM. Clinical Practice Guideline: Opioid Prescribing for Analgesia After Common Otolaryngology Operations. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2021 Apr;164(2_suppl):S1-S42. doi: 10.1177/0194599821996297. PMID: 33822668.