Endoscopic Resection of Pediatric Skull Base Tumors: An Evidence-Based Review.
Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
Objectives To perform a systematic review examining experiences with endoscopic resection of skull base lesions in the pediatric population, with a focus on outcomes, recurrence, and surgical morbidities. Methods PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science databases were evaluated. Studies were assessed for level of evidence. Bias risk was evaluated using the Cochrane Bias tool, Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE), and Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) criteria. Patient characteristics, pathology, site of primary disease, presenting symptoms, stage, procedure specific details, and complications were evaluated. Results were reported using the Preferred Reporting Systems for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Results Ninety-three studies met criteria for inclusion, encompassing 574 patients with skull base tumors. The GRADE and MINORS criteria determined the overall evidence to be moderate quality. The most common benign and malignant pathologies included juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas ( n = 239) and chondrosarcomas ( n = 11) at 41.6 and 1.9%, respectively. Of all juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma tumors, most presented at stage IIIa and IIIb (25.8 and 27.3%, respectively). Nasal obstruction (16.5%) and headache (16.0%) were common symptoms at initial presentation. Surgical approaches included endoscopic endonasal ( n = 193, 41.2%) and endoscopic extended transsphenoidal ( n = 155, 33.1%). Early (< 6 weeks) and late (>6 weeks) complications included cerebrospinal fluid leak ( n = 36, 17.3%) and endocrinopathy ( n = 43, 20.7%). Mean follow-up time was 37 months (0.5-180 months), with 86.5% showing no evidence of disease and 2.1% having died from disease at last follow-up. Conclusion Endoscopic skull base surgery has been shown to be a safe and effective method of treating a variety of pediatric skull base tumors. If appropriately employed, the minimally invasive approach can provide optimal results in the pediatric population.
Shenouda K, Yuhan BT, Mir A, Gonik N, Eloy JA, Liu JK, Folbe AJ, Svider PF. Endoscopic Resection of Pediatric Skull Base Tumors: An Evidence-Based Review. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2019 Oct;80(5):527-539. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1676305. Epub 2018 Dec 11. PMID: 31534896; PMCID: PMC6748853.