Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in the Setting of Periprosthetic Joint Infection—Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment

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© 2017 Elsevier Inc. Background Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a rare yet challenging problem in total hip and knee arthroplasties. The management of PJI remains difficult primarily due to the evolution of resistance by the infecting organisms. Methods This review profiles acquired mechanisms of bacterial resistance and summarizes established and emerging techniques in PJI diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Results New techniques in PJI diagnosis and prevention continue to be explored. Antibiotics combined with 1 or 2-stage revision are associated with the higher success rates and remain the mainstay of treatment. Conclusion With higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms, novel antibiotic implant and wound care materials, improved methods for organism identification, and well-defined organism-specific treatment algorithms are needed to optimize outcomes of PJI.

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