Clinical and Radiographic Workup of Medial and Lateral Knee Ligament Injuries
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine
The medial and lateral knee ligament complexes play an important role in valgus, varus, and rotational stability. Three primary medial structures, the superficial medial collateral ligament, the deep medial collateral ligament, and the posterior oblique ligament, contribute to dynamic medial and anteromedial knee stability. Three primary lateral structures, the fibular collateral ligament, the popliteus tendon, and the popliteofibular ligament, contribute to static lateral and posterolateral knee stability. Historically, injuries to these ligament complexes can be challenging to diagnose and treat. An understanding of the specific anatomy, biomechanical properties, physical examination, and imaging is paramount for making an accurate clinical diagnosis as well as determining optimal surgical and nonsurgical management in the setting of injury to these structures. The following review will highlight evidence based physical examination techniques and imaging and/or stress radiography protocols available in order to achieve an accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment for medial and lateral knee ligament injuries.
Liechti DJ, Dean RS, Larson CM. Clinical and radiographic workup of medial and lateral knee ligament injuries. Oper Tech Sports Med. 2022 Jun;30(2):150909. doi:10.1016/j.otsm.2022.15909.