National and State Level Opioid-Restricting Legislation in Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review.
The Journal of arthroplasty
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is a health crisis in the United States. Within orthopedic surgery, opioid misuse and incautious prescription remains a concern. In the last several years, there has been a growing interest and public effort toward reducing opioid use in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in response to the opioid epidemic in the United States. We aim to review opioid-limiting practices, policies, and legislations that are implemented at the state level and nationally that are relevant to TJA, as well as evaluate studies that measure the efficacy of these policies in the management of patients undergoing TJA.
METHODS: Two independent reviewers conducted a systematic review of national and state level opioid-limiting policies implemented in the United States and their effects on opioid prescription, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement (PRISMA).
RESULTS: We identified 3 national bills and 9 policies set forth by national organizations that imposed limits on opioid prescription. Opioid-reducing legislation was also identified in 24 states, with the majority specifying a 7-day limit on initial opioid prescription for acute pain management. Six research studies evaluating the impact of opioid-restricting policies on postoperative opioid prescription for TJA patients were found. Three studies assessed legislation at the state level while the others were institution-based guidelines. Overall, these studies demonstrated a significant decrease in mean morphine milligram equivalents of initial opioid prescription after implementing the policies.
CONCLUSION: Recent opioid-restricting legislation is effective in decreasing postoperative opioid prescriptions following TJA.
Randall DJ, Vanood A, Jee Y, Moore DD. National and state level opioid-restricting legislation in total joint arthroplasty: a systematic review. J Arthroplasty. 2022 Jan;37(1):176-185. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2021.07.013. PMID: 34456092.