Risk factors for manipulation under anaesthesia after total knee arthroplasty.

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Bone & Joint Journal


AIMS: Postoperative range of movement (ROM) is an important measure of successful and satisfying total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Reduced postoperative ROM may be evident in up to 20% of all TKAs and negatively affects satisfaction. To improve ROM, manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) may be performed. Historically, a limited ROM preoperatively was used as the key harbinger of the postoperative ROM. However, comorbidities may also be useful in predicting postoperative stiffness. The goal was to assess preoperative comorbidities in patients undergoing TKA relative to incidence of postoperative MUA. The hope is to forecast those who may be at increased risk and determine if MUA is an effective form of treatment.

METHODS: Prospectively collected data of TKAs performed at our institution's two hospitals from August 2014 to August 2018 were evaluated for incidence of MUA. Comorbid conditions, risk factors, implant component design and fixation method (cemented vs cementless), and discharge disposition were analyzed. Overall, 3,556 TKAs met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 164 underwent MUA.

RESULTS: Patients with increased age and body mass index (BMI) had decreased likelihood of MUA. For every one-year increase in age, the likelihood of MUA decreased by 4%. Similarly, for every one-unit increase in BMI the likelihood of MUA decreased by 6%. There were no differences in incidence of MUA between component type/design or fixation method. Current or former smokers were more likely to have no MUA. Surprisingly, patients discharged to home health service or skilled nursing facility were approximately 40% and 70% less likely than those discharged home with outpatient therapy to be in the MUA group. MUA was effective, with a mean increased ROM of 32.81° (SD 19.85°; -15° to 90°).

CONCLUSION: Younger, thinner patients had highest incidence of MUA. Effect of discharge disposition on rate of MUA was an important finding and may influence surgeons' decisions. Interestingly, use of cement and component design (constraint) did not impact incidence of MUA. Level of Evidence II: Prospective cohort study. Cite this article:





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