The effect of glenohumeral radial mismatch on different augmented total shoulder arthroplasty glenoid designs: a finite element analysis.
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
BACKGROUND: Augmented glenoid implants to correct bone loss can possibly reconcile current prosthetic failures and improve long-term performance for total shoulder arthroplasty. Biomechanical implant studies have suggested benefits from augmented glenoid components, but limited evidence exists on optimal design.
METHODS: An integrated kinematic finite element analysis (FEA) model was used to evaluate optimal augmented glenoid design based on biomechanical performance in translation in the anteroposterior plane similar to clinical loading and failure mechanisms with osteoarthritis. Computer-aided design software models of 2 different commercially available augmented glenoid designs-wedge (Equinox; Exactech, Inc., Gainesville, FL, USA) and step (STEPTECH; DePuy Synthes, Warsaw, IN, USA) were created according to precise manufacturer's dimensions of the implants. Using FEA, they were virtually implanted to correct 20° of retroversion. Two glenohumeral radial mismatches, 3.5/4 mm and 10 mm, were evaluated for joint stability and implant fixation simulating high-risk conditions for failure.
RESULTS: The wedged and step designs showed similar glenohumeral joint stability under both radial mismatches. Surrogate for micromotion was a combination of distraction, translation, and compression. With similar behavior and measurements for distraction and translation, compression dictated micromotion (wedge: 3.5 mm = 0.18 mm and 10 mm = 0.10 mm; step: 3.5 mm = 0.19 mm and 10 mm = 0.25 mm). Stress levels on the backside of the implant and on the cement mantle were higher using a step design.
DISCUSSION: Greater radial mismatch has the advantage of providing higher glenohumeral stability with tradeoffs, such as higher implant and cement mantle stress levels, and micromotion worse when using a step design.
Sabesan VJ, Lima DJL, Whaley JD, Pathak V, Zhang L. The effect of glenohumeral radial mismatch on different augmented total shoulder arthroplasty glenoid designs: a finite element analysis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2019 Jun;28(6):1146-1153. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2018.11.059. Epub 2019 Feb 13. PMID: 30770315.