What Are the Effects of Patient Point of Entry and Medicaid Status on Postoperative Opioid Consumption and Pain Following Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty?
The Journal of Arthroplasty
BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) provides excellent results across a variety of pathologies. As greater focus is placed on the opioid epidemic, we sought to determine if patients presenting for TKA via the Medicaid clinic (Medicaid) differed in terms of their opioid requirements compared to patients presenting via private office clinics (non-Medicaid).
METHODS: A single-institution total joint arthroplasty database was utilized to identify patients who underwent elective TKA between January 2016 and May 2019. Medicaid clinic patients were insured by some form of Medicaid, whereas private office patients had commercial or Medicare insurance. Morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) and Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care scores were calculated.
RESULTS: A total of 6509 patients were identified: 413 (6.35%) Medicaid and 6096 (93.65%) non-Medicaid. Medicaid patients were younger (63.32 vs 66.21 years, P < .0001), less likely to be of Caucasian race (21.31% vs 56.82%, P < .0001), and more likely to be active smokers (11.14% vs 7.73%, P < .0001). Although surgical time and home discharge rates were similar, Medicaid patients had longer length of stay (2.80 vs 2.46 days, P < .0001). Opioid requirements were higher for Medicaid patients (200.1 vs 132.2 MMEs, P < .0001), paralleling higher pain scores (3.03 vs 2.55, P < .0001). No differences were found in Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care scores (18.47 vs 18.77, P = .1824).
CONCLUSION: Medicaid patients tended to be younger, of minority race, and active smokers compared to non-Medicaid patients. Medicaid patients demonstrated worse postoperative pain scores and required 51% greater MMEs immediately following TKA, highlighting the need for preoperative counseling in traditionally at-risk socioeconomic groups.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, Retrospective Observational Analysis.
Roof MA, Mahure SA, Feng JE, Aggarwal VK, Long WJ, Schwarzkopf R. What Are the Effects of Patient Point of Entry and Medicaid Status on Postoperative Opioid Consumption and Pain Following Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty? J Arthroplasty. 2020 Oct;35(10):2786-2790. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2020.05.040. Epub 2020 May 23. PMID: 32536455.