Characterization of Epiretinal Proliferation in Full-Thickness Macular Holes and Effects on Surgical Outcomes.
PURPOSE: Epiretinal proliferation is a distinct clinical entity from epiretinal membrane that classically is associated with lamellar macular holes, but its prevalence and association with full-thickness macular holes (FTMH) have not been well described. We characterized macular hole-associated epiretinal proliferation (MHEP) and its effects on long-term surgical outcomes.
DESIGN: Multicenter, interventional, retrospective case-control study.
PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive eyes that underwent surgery for FTMH with a minimum of 12 months follow-up.
METHODS: All eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy, removal of any epiretinal membranes, and gas tamponade, with or without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Spectral-domain OCT imaging was obtained before and after surgery.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Improvement in visual acuity and single-surgery hole closure rates in eyes with, versus without, MHEP at 12 months.
RESULTS: Seven hundred twenty-five charts were analyzed, and 113 patients met inclusion criteria. Of 113 eyes with FTMH, 30 (26.5%) showed MHEP. Patients with FTMH and MHEP were older (P < 0.002) and more often men (P = 0.001), and showed more advanced macular hole stages than those without MHEP (P = 0.010). A full posterior vitreous detachment was more common in eyes with MHEP (P < 0.004). Twelve months after surgery, FTMH with MHEP patients showed significantly less improvement in visual acuity (P = 0.019) with higher rates of ellipsoid and external limiting membrane defects (P < 0.05) and with a higher rate of failure to close with 1 surgery compared to FTMH without MHEP (26.7% vs. 4.8%; P = 0.002]). Peeling the ILM was associated with improved rates of hole closure in FTMH with MHEP (P < 0.001). Multivariate testing confirmed that the presence of MHEP was an independent risk factor for less visual improvement (P = 0.031) and for single-surgery nonclosure (P = 0.009) and that ILM peeling improved single-surgery closure rates (P = 0.026).
CONCLUSIONS: We found that FTMH with MHEP showed poorer anatomic and visual outcomes after vitrectomy compared with FTMH without MHEP. Internal limiting membrane peeling was associated with improved closure rates and should be considered when MHEP is detected before surgery.
Lee Kim E, Weiner AJ, Ung C, Roh M, Wang J, Lee IJ, Huang NT, Stem M, Dahrouj M, Eliott D, Vavvas DG, Young LHY, Williams GA, Garretson BR, Kim IK, Hassan TS, Mukai S, Ruby AJ, Faia LJ, Capone A Jr, Comander J, Kim LA, Wu DM, Drenser KA, Woodward MA, Wolfe JD, Yonekawa Y. Characterization of Epiretinal Proliferation in Full-Thickness Macular Holes and Effects on Surgical Outcomes. Ophthalmol Retina. 2019 Aug;3(8):694-702. doi: 10.1016/j.oret.2019.03.022. Epub 2019 Apr 1. PMID: 31104985; PMCID: PMC6684822.