Surgical classification for large macular hole: based on different surgical techniques results: the CLOSE study group.
International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
BACKGROUND: The CLOSE study group proposes an updated surgical classification for large macular holes based on a systematic review of new treatments. Recently, many new techniques have been introduced to treat large full-thickness macular holes (FTMH); although the indications are not clear. An updated surgical classification is needed to help surgical decision-making.
METHODS: We gathered published series by the CLOSE Study Group members and from literature search until June 2021. Techniques included: internal limiting membrane peeling (ILM peeling), ILM flaps, macular hydrodissection (macular hydro), human amniotic membrane graft (hAM), and autologous retinal transplantation (ART). Within each technique, chi-square test assessed association between the minimal linear diameter (MLD) (in µm) and closure rate; the postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) gains were compared among groups.
RESULTS: Data extraction included 31 published articles: total of 1135 eyes. Eyes were divided into the following groups: ILM peel (n: 683), ILM Flap (n: 233), macular hydrodissection (n: 64), hAM (n: 59), and ART (n: 96). The initial BCVA and size were heterogenous between the groups. ILM peel showed the best results in large FTMH ≤ 535 µm (closure rate 96.8%); adjusted mean BCVA: 0.49 (LogMAR) with a statistical difference among groups. Large FTMH between 535 and 799 µm: ILM flap technique showed better results (closure rate 99.0%); adjusted mean BCVA: 0.67(LogMAR); also with a statistical difference. For large FTMH ≥ 800 µm more invasive techniques are required. Use of hAM, macular hydrodissection and ART showed higher closure rates for this category (100%, 83.3% and 90.5% respectively), and adjusted mean BCVA varied from 0.76 to 0.89. Although there was no statistical difference between those techniques for this group due to the smaller number of cases.
CONCLUSIONS: The CLOSE study group demonstrated the potential usefulness of a new surgical classification for large FTMHs and propose OCT biomarkers for use in clinical practice and future research. This new classification demonstrated that Large (400-550 µm) and X-Large (550-800 µm) holes can be treated highly successfully with ILM peel and ILM flap techniques, respectively. Further studies are necessary for the larger FTMHs (XX-Large and Giant), using the CLOSE classification, in order to determine which technique is better suited for each hole size and characteristics.
Rezende FA, Ferreira BG, Rampakakis E, Steel DH, Koss MJ, Nawrocka ZA, et al. [Mahmoud TH] Surgical classification for large macular hole: based on different surgical techniques results: the CLOSE study group. Int J Retina Vitreous. 2023 Jan 30;9(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s40942-022-00439-4. PMID: 36717928.