Ocular Pharmacology for Scleritis: Review of Treatment and a Practical Perspective.

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Scleritis is defined as an infectious or noninfectious inflammation of the sclera that can be broadly categorized according to anatomic location (ie, anterior or posterior) and whether the process is necrotizing or non-necrotizing. Treatment for scleritis is dictated by the etiology of the inflammation, with infectious forms requiring treatment of the inciting agent and noninfectious forms requiring treatment of the underlying inflammation with immunosuppression. Pharmacotherapy for noninfectious scleritis can be classified according to delivery route (eg, local or systemic) and mechanism of action (eg, biologic or nonbiologic). This review will briefly summarize the classification scheme for scleritis before reviewing in depth both systemic and local pharmacotherapies that can be used to effectively treat an eye afflicted by either infectious or noninfectious scleritis. Traditional anti-inflammatory agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, and immunomodulatory therapy will be discussed, as well as newer biologic therapies such as antitumor necrosis factor alpha and anti-CD20 agents.