Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Macula and Vitreomacular Interface in Persistent Fetal Vasculature Syndrome with Posterior Involvement

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PURPOSE: To describe the microstructural features of the macula and vitreomacular interface in persistent fetal vasculature syndrome (PFVS) with posterior involvement managed with early vitrectomy or with observation, with functional correlation.

METHODS: We retrospectively identified 45 consecutive pediatric patients with PFVS with posterior involvement treated from 2005 to 2016. The eyes that could be imaged with spectral domain optical coherence tomography were included, and images were correlated with best-corrected visual acuity.

RESULTS: Thirty-eight imaging sessions were performed on 10 eyes from 9 patients, including 7 that had been managed with vitrectomy for PFVS-related tractional retinal detachment, and 3 that had been observed. Mean age of the patients who were imaged was 9.1 years and their average length of follow-up was 5.9 years. Best-corrected visual acuities of the eyes imaged ranged from 20/30 to count fingers, with mean best-corrected visual acuity 20/163. All eyes imaged had microstructural anomalies identified. The main anomalous features included posterior hyaloidal organization, vitreoretinal traction, vitreopapillary traction, diminished foveal contour, foveal displacement, and disruption of the ellipsoid zone. Posterior hyaloidal organization (P = 0.043), diminished foveal contour (P = 0.019), and disruption of the ellipsoid zone (P = 0.014) were associated with worse best-corrected visual acuity.

CONCLUSION: Macular and vitreomacular interface anomalies were identified in all pediatric patients with posterior PFVS imaged with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. These microstructural findings, together with functional measures, may inform the diagnosis and management of PFVS with posterior involvement.