Associations between Lifestyle Factors and Vitamin E Metabolites in the General Population.
The antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol, α-TOH) protects lipids from oxidation by reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that lifestyle factors associate with vitamin E metabolism marked by urinary α-tocopheronolactone hydroquinone (α-TLHQ) and α-carboxymethyl-hydroxychroman (α-CEHC levels), as potential reflection of lipid oxidation. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study. Serum α-TOH, and urinary α-TLHQ and α-CEHC were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Information on the lifestyle factors (sleep, physical activity (PA), smoking and alcohol) were collected through questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between the lifestyle factors and α-TOH measures. A total of 530 participants (46% men) were included with mean (SD) age of 56 (6) years. Of the examined lifestyle factors, only poor sleep was associated with a higher serum α-TOH (mean difference: 4% (95% CI: 1, 7%)). Current smoking was associated with higher urinary α-CEHC (32%: (14%, 53%)), with evidence of a dose-response relationship with smoking intensity (low pack years, 24% (2, 52%); high pack years, 55% (25, 93%)). Moderate physical activity was associated with a lower α-TLHQ relative to α-CEHC (-17%: (-26, -6%), compared with low PA). Only specific lifestyle factors associate with vitamin E metabolism. Examining serum α-TOH does not provide complete insight in vitamin E antioxidant capacity.
Martens LG, Luo J, Meulmeester FL, Ashrafi N, van Eekelen EW, de Mutsert R, Mook-Kanamori DO, Rosendaal FR, van Dijk KW, Mills K, Noordam R, van Heemst D. Associations between Lifestyle Factors and Vitamin E Metabolites in the General Population. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Dec 15;9(12):1280. doi: 10.3390/antiox9121280. PMID: 33333950; PMCID: PMC7765431.