Risk Factors for Early- and Late-Onset Superimposed Preeclampsia.
American journal of perinatology
OBJECTIVE: Risk factors of early- and late-onset preeclampsia among pregnant individuals with chronic hypertension are not well described in the literature. We hypothesized that early- and late-onset superimposed preeclampsia (SIPE) have different risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to examine the risk factors of early- and late-onset SIPE among individuals with chronic hypertension.
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective case-control study of pregnant individuals with chronic hypertension who delivered at 22 weeks' gestation or greater at an academic institution. Early-onset SIPE was defined as SIPE diagnosed before 34 weeks' gestation. To identify risk factors, we compared individuals' characteristics between individuals who developed early- and late-onset SIPE and those who did not. We then compared characteristics between individuals who developed early-onset SIPE and late-onset SIPE. Characteristics with
RESULTS: Of 839 individuals, 156 (18.6%) had early-onset, 154 (18.4%) had late-onset SIPE and 529 (63.1%) did not have SIPE. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that serum creatinine ≥ 0.7 mg/dL compared to less than 0.7 mg/dL (aOR: 2.89 [95% CI: 1.63-5.13]), increase of creatinine (1.33 [1.16-1.53]), nulliparity compared to multiparity (1.77 [1.21-2.60]), and pregestational diabetes (1.70 [1.11-2.62]) were risk factors for early-onset SIPE. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that nulliparity compared to multiparity (1.53 [1.05-2.22]) and pregestational diabetes (1.74 [1.14-2.64]) was a risk factor for late-onset SIPE. Serum creatinine ≥ 0.7 mg/dL (2.90 [1.36-6.15]) and increase of creatinine (1.33 [1.10-1.60]) were significantly associated with early-onset SIPE compared to late-onset SIPE.
CONCLUSION: Kidney dysfunction seemed to be associated with the pathophysiology of early-onset SIPE. Nulliparity and pregestational diabetes were common risk factors for both early- and late-onset SIPE.
KEY POINTS: · Serum creatinine level was positively associated with early-onset superimposed preeclampsia (SIPE).. · Pregestational diabetes and nulliparity were associated with both early- and late-onset SIPE.. · The identification of risk factors may provide an opportunity to decrease the rates of SIPE..
Onishi K, Seagraves E, Baraki D, Donaldson T, Barake C, Abuhamad A, et al Risk factors for early- and late-onset superimposed preeclampsia. Am J Perinatol. 2023 Jun 19. doi: 10.1055/a-2096-5052. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37211009.