Diagnostic Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease as Identified in Saliva using 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics.

Ali Yilmaz, Beaumont Health
Tim Geddes, Beaumont Health
Ray O Bahado-Singh, Beaumont Health
George D Wilson, Beaumont Health
Khaled Imam, Beaumont Health
Michael Maddens, Beaumont Health
Stewart F. Graham, Beaumont Health


Using 1H NMR metabolomics, we biochemically profiled saliva samples collected from healthy-controls (n = 12), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) sufferers (n = 8), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n = 9). We accurately identified significant concentration changes in 22 metabolites in the saliva of MCI and AD patients compared to controls. This pilot study demonstrates the potential for using metabolomics and saliva for the early diagnosis of AD. Given the ease and convenience of collecting saliva, the development of accurate and sensitive salivary biomarkers would be ideal for screening those at greatest risk of developing AD.