Limiting morbidity in neuromodulation
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Complications resulting from surgery are not uncommon; however, many measures can be taken to reduce the severity and rate of them. It is the responsibility of the surgeon to mitigate such risks. The field of neuromodulation poses additional risks due to the implantation of hardware, opening the door for infection, migration, erosion, and more. Thoroughly understanding the risks involved with the procedure, educating patients and caretakers, and carefully selecting patients is essential for minimizing and avoiding complications.
In this chapter, we will present pre-, intra-, and postoperative considerations and strategies to minimize complications and morbidity. Specifically, we will offer methods to prevent infection preoperatively by considering modifiable lifestyle factors and comorbidities that have been correlated with higher morbidity. Next, we will consider surgical techniques to mitigate the various intraoperative complications that may arise. Finally, we will discuss what to do when complications and/or suboptimal outcomes occur postoperatively.
Chronic pain, Coagulopathy, Deep brain stimulation, Failed back surgery syndrome, Infection, Neuropathy, Spinal cord stimulation
Staudt MD, Khazen O, Patel S, Slavin KV, Pilitsis JG. Limiting morbidity in neuromodulation. In: Arle JE, Shils JL, editors. Essential neuromodulation (second edition): Academic Press; 2022. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-817000-7.00014-4.