A Combinational Approach Using Cell Therapy, Tissue Engineering, and Distracting Device for the Treatment of Degenerative Disc Disease

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Journal of Stem Cells Research Development & Therapy


The Intervertebral Disc (IVD) is a fibrocartilaginous tissue instrumental in spine flexibility, allowing for the bending and twisting motion between vertebral bodies. Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) results from the complex and chronic deterioration in IVD organization, structure, and function [1]. DDD has been implicated in the majority of cases of chronic Lower Back Pain (LBP) [2]. LBP is one of the most prevalent and debilitating musculoskeletal diseases, affecting nearly 80% of Americans during their lifetime [3]. Consequently, IVD degeneration accounts for around 25%-30% of all direct and indirect healthcare costs in North America and Europe [4]. In the United States alone, an estimated $84.1 billion to $624.8 billion has been spent annually for the treatment of LBP. In addition, a loss of between $7.4 billion to $28 billion annually has been reported from diminished work productivity [5]. As such, there is a great deal of interest in elucidating the etiology of DDD and relieving the expansive societal burden associated with DDD. Toward this end, it is important to understand the biology and function of IVD as well as the intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with degeneration.



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